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Women (but not men) with both high and low facial masculinity are perceived as competitive leaders, finds new academic study. The study was co-authored by Raphael Silberzahn of IESE Business School at the University of Navarra in Barcelona, and Jochen Menges, University Lecturer in Organisational Behaviour at Cambridge Judge and Professor of Leadership at WHU – Otto Beisheim School of Management in Germany. “This study challenges gender theory that says women with feminine facial characteristics are associated with communal behaviour and nurturing, while men with masculine features are associated with being driven and competitive,” says Jochen Menges.